(RxWiki News) Are you treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with medication? Here's all you need to know about the available treatment options.
ADHD is a common childhood disorder that can continue through adolescence into adulthood. The primary symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness. While ADHD is treatable with medication and without, medication can help children and adults with ADHD manage their symptoms by increasing certain brain chemicals.
Read on to learn about the different ADHD medications and what to expect during and after treatment.
The medications most commonly prescribed to ADHD patients are stimulants. These work by increasing levels of the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine. Both short-acting and long-acting (extended-release) stimulants are available.
Common side effects include stomach pain, problems falling or staying asleep (insomnia), dry mouth, headaches, decrease in appetite, fast heartbeat, dizziness, irritability and worsening of tics.
Stimulants used to treat ADHD include amphetamine/dextroamphetamine (Adderall), dexmethylphenidate (Focalin), and methylphenidate (like Ritalin and Concerta).
In addition to the potential side effects, there are some safety concerns about stimulant use. Stimulant abuse is a growing problem, particularly among teens and young adults. If your child or teen is taking stimulants, it’s important to monitor use closely and make sure he or she is not sharing the medication with others.
Red-flag side effects include heart palpitations, changes in mood (such as mania) and seizures. Seek medical attention if you or your child experience any of these symptoms.
Stimulants are not recommended for people with any type of heart problem, high blood pressure, thyroid problem, glaucoma, high levels of anxiety or a history of drug abuse.
If you and your doctor decide that a stimulant isn’t the right choice, there's no need to worry. Non-stimulant medications like atomoxetine (brand name Strattera) can also help.
Strattera boosts levels of norepinephrine in the brain. It’s important to remember that Strattera may take longer than stimulant medications for you to see an improvement in symptoms. Common side effects include sleepiness, upset stomach, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, difficulty falling or staying asleep (insomnia) and a decrease in appetite.
Blood pressure medications like clonidine (Kapvay) and guanfacine (Intuniv) may also be used to treat ADHD. These medications also may take longer to work than stimulants.
Once you or your child have started ADHD medication, it’s important to note any behavioral changes. Have there been positive changes in mood and behavior? Have you noticed any changes in any specific behavior? Have you noticed any side effects? If the answer to any of these questions is yes, you may want to talk to your doctor to see if these effects will last.
You may also want to weigh the pros of the medication against the cons. You’ll likely have a follow-up appointment not long after starting a medication. This is a great time to bring up any non-urgent concerns you have.
Coping with Side Effects
Most patients will experience a few side effects when taking an ADHD medication, but most side effects improve within a few weeks as the body adjusts. Here are a few ways to cope:
- If you experience loss of appetite, try to take your medication with meals.
- If sleep is a problem, you can try starting your medication earlier in the day or switching from an extended-release stimulant to a short-acting one. It may also be smart to avoid caffeinated beverages like coffee or tea, especially later in the day.
- If your stomach or head hurts, make sure you’re not taking the medication on an empty stomach.
- Stimulants can increase blood pressure, so it’s important for your doctor to check your blood pressure periodically.
- If you experience mood changes, your doctor may make changes to your medication.
If any side effects persist, speak with your doctor.
It’s critical that you take your ADHD medication as directed by your doctor. This will maximize your medication’s effectiveness and minimize potential risks. Know what side effects to look for and what types of substances to avoid.
People are typically started on a low dosage, which is adjusted as needed, so it’s important to be patient. To avoid possible withdrawal symptoms, do not stop taking your medication suddenly.
Before your child starts his or her ADHD medication, make sure he or she understands how to take it properly and why taking it as directed is important.
As much as you’d love for medication to be a cure-all, treating ADHD may take more than just a pill. You can make a few lifestyle changes to enhance your treatment, which may even enable you to lower your dose. Some potentially helpful lifestyle changes are listed below:
- Exercise regularly. Exercise is a great way to increase your focus because it naturally releases certain helpful brain chemicals.
- Eat a healthy diet. While diet doesn’t necessarily cause ADHD, it does have an effect on mood and energy levels.
- Get plenty of ZZZs. If you’re having trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor about ways to sleep better.
- Consider therapy. A therapist can help you learn new skills to cope with your symptoms and habits.
Ask your pharmacist or doctor any questions you have about ADHD medications.
Written by Digital Pharmacist Staff